In March 2011, the European Commission adopted the White Paper 2011 “Roadmap to a Single
Area – Towards a competitive and resource efficient transport system”2, defining a
strategy to make European Union transport system more efficient, safe and secure. The 2011 White
identifies ten goals for a competitive and resource-efficient transport system, which serve as
for achieving the 60% GHG emissions reduction target.
Among its goals, the White Paper sets that 30% of road freight over 300 km should shift to other
as rail or waterborne transport by 2030, and more than 50% by 2050, facilitated by efficient and
In order to achieve this objective, various initiatives have been implementing at European
strengthening of the high speed railways and completion of the TEN-T3 infrastructure
motorways of the sea initiative4; the Marco Polo Programme5, closed
fostering intermodal alternative solutions.
Despite the efforts and actions undertaken at both European and national level in favour of
transport”, in the European Union the road mode is still largely predominant (48% of total
In this context, Regional and National Authorities often set up incentive schemes to encourage a
in the modes of transporting goods, by supporting the utilisation of less polluting modes of
-different from the all-road one (modal shift).